Post WWII Commercially Manufactured M1 Carbines

Manufacturer

Chiappa Firearms
Azzano Mella,
Italy


Registered Trademark of Armi Sport, Azzano Mella, Italy

U.S.A Wholesaler

Legacy Sports Int'l
Citadel Trademark
Reno, Nevada

Chiappa Firearms

Chiappa Firearms is a family owned and operated manufacturer of firearms located in Azzano Mella, Brescia, Italy. Founded in 1958 with the production of a single action revolver, the company has expanded to The Chiappa Group of companies, including:

  • Armi Sport (replica firearms, target shooting firearms, firearms for defense)
  • Kimar (blank, signal and small caliber firearms)
  • ACP (laser training system)
  • Costa Giampietro (metal surface treatment)
  • Chiappa Firearms Ltd (replica firearms, target shooting firearms, firearms for defense)

In Europe the firearms are sold under the name of the company within The Chiappa Group that manufactured them. Historically and currently, in the United States their firearms have often been imported and sold wholesale by American companies whose marketing targeted the buyers of the type of replica the family made as opposed to one or more importers handling the entire line of firearms. An example would be their replica 19th Century American handguns and rifles sold by Taylor & Company of Winchester, VA, a company that specializes in western action firearms of the 19th century. The result has been many of the firearms manufactured by Armi Sport/Chiappa being sold under the names of various marketing wholesalers as opposed to the Chiappa name. For the Chiappa Model M1-22 the family chose Legacy Sports of Reno, NV as the sole USA wholesaler.

According to the Chiappa Firearms website, "January 1, 2007 Chiappa Firearms began re-structuring their distribution program for North America. Factory representation was based in the United States allowing direct communication for our customers. In addition to the direct North American representation, development of a service support center conveniently located in the United States providing warranty service, repairs, as well as Custom Shop service. In 2009, Chiappa Firearms, Ltd., located in Dayton, Ohio expanded the North American operation moving to a new facility and expanded operations to include manufacturing products specifically for the US Market."

According to the Ohio Secretary of State, Chiappa Firearms was incorporated in the State of Ohio in November 2006, followed by Chiappa Holdings in March 2009. In May 2010 they applied for a trademark for the name of Chiappa Firearms which was issued in August 2011.

In July 2009 the company purchased several acres in Dayton, OH on which they constructed a building with 1959 sq ft of office space and a 5056 sq ft warehouse. This facility serves as their North American branch and handles their warranty operations for the USA.


Legacy Sports International - Citadel

Legacy Sports started business by August 1999 at 10 Prince St. in Alexandria, VA with Legacy Sports International using the address 206 South Union Street, Alexandria, VA. These addresses are located on the southeast corner of Union Street at Prince Street. From the 1960's until 1999 this was the home of Interarmco/Interarms owned by Samuel Cummings. Interarmco/Interarms was well a known major firearms importer/exporter for many years. Cummings passed away in April 1998. The Legacy Sports website of 1999 stated they were created to import and distribute affordable high quality products for outdoors sports enthusiasts, including the Howa Model 1500 rifle.

Legacy Sports relocated to it's current location in Reno, NV in 2006. They continue to import firearms manufactured by Howa and companies throughout the world often using names specific to Legacy Sports as opposed to the original manufacturer.

Since April 2011 the Legacy Sports website has included the "Citadel Model M-1 .22 Carbine" in their offerings. "Citadel" was trademarked by Legacy Sports in 2008 and has been used as the name for a number of different firearms Legacy Sports obtains from a number of different manufacturers including a semi-automatic pistol manufactured by ISSC in Austria. The .22 Carbine is sold in the USA as the "Citadel Model M1-22" made by Chiappa. Outside the USA the gun is sold as the "Chiappa M1-22" (which Chiappa indicates as a trademark). On October 28, 2011 Legacy Sports distributed a press release announcing they were offering the new "Citadel Model M-1 .22 Carbine". The first marketing announcements pre-dated actual sales by approximately 10 months.

Legacy Sports is the sole U.S. wholesaler of this carbine. The Legacy Sports website refers customers to the Chiappa website for parts and warranty service.

The Prototype

At the 2011 NRA Convention in Pittsburgh, PA, the Chiappa booth included a prototype of the Model M1-22 to be. The company was still working on design changes at the time.


Prototype

The Model M1-22

The different models of the M1-22 manufactured by Chiappa are simply the same rifle with the only differences being where it is being marketed and the option of a wood stock or synthetic stock.


Citadel Model M-1 .22 Carbine (USA)
Ref. #CaliberStockGroovesTwist RateBarrel LengthOverall LengthWeightMagazine Capacity
CIR22M1W.22 long riflewood6*1 in 1618"35"4 lbs, 8 oz10
CIR22M1S.22 long riflesynthetic (black)6*1 in 1618"35"4 lbs, 8 oz10
 
Chiappa Firearms Model M1-22 Carbine (Europe)
Ref. #CaliberStockGroovesTwist RateBarrel LengthOverall LengthWeightMagazine Capacity
500-082.22 long riflewood61 in 1618"35"4 lbs, 8 oz10
500-083.22 long riflesynthetic (black)61 in 1618"35"4 lbs, 8 oz10
*10 grooves on some carbines being sold
The information above was obtained from the manual. Company websites conflict with one another and the manual.
Weight obtained by weighing the M1-22, without magazine.

As a replica of the U.S. Carbine Caliber 30 M1 the designer of this .22 rimfire did, with a few exceptions noted below, a good job of replicating the parts of an M1 Carbine. The design is so close owners may be tempted to interchange parts of the M1-22 with their counterparts made for the M1 Carbine. If you decide to replace any of the parts on this replica carbine with parts made for an M1 Carbine there are a few things you should know beforehand.

This website is an overview of this carbine as a replica, not a close review of every part, it's construction, or it's reliability as a firearm.


Action


Details on various parts listed below under each parts group


Note the two screws forward of the forward trigger housing lug for securing the barrel.


Note the open design of the hole for the recoil spring.


Slide and bolt in the open position.


Slide and bolt in the closed position.


Receiver


Manufactured from aluminum


Note the dismount notch for the slide


The slide has a slide stop for holding the slide and bolt open.


Barrel


6 lands & grooves
 

10 lands & grooves
Discoloration present at time of purchase


The barrel is manufactured from steel and sits in an aluminum sleeve which is attached to the front of the receiver.
The barrel is pinned in place by two screws inserted through the bottom of the receiver.


Slide


Slide is manufactured from aluminum. Recoil spring and guide rod are steel.


Slide dismount notch in receiver


Slide stop pin and detent in receiver. The manner in which the arm on the
rear of the slide engages the bolt is similar to the design of the Erma Werke Model EM1 .22.


The Chiappa design of the front of the slide is a definite improvement over the design of the Erma EM1. The front of the slide
engages guides on either side of the barrel, the rear of the slide engages a guide in the right side of the receiver, similar
to the M1 Carbine design but modified for the .22 rimfire blowback design instead of the short stroke gas piston of the .30 caliber carbine.


The M1 Carbine recoil spring and guide is shown on the bottom for comparison to the Chiappa M1-22 recoil spring and guide above it. The receiver's open
recoil spring hole design requires the recoil spring guide to be longer than it's M1 Carbine counterpart. The Chiappa recoil spring guide is 17mm in length
(approx. 6 3/4"). It's M1 Carbine counterpart is approximately 4 15/16" long (approx. 12.5mm).


Due to the length of the guide rod the recoil spring and guide rod are removed and replaced in conjunction with the slide as it is dismounted
and replaced. Attempting to remove the recoil spring and guide rod before removing the slide or after replacing the slide will damage the recoil spring
guide and scratch the finish on the slide/receiver.


Bolt Assembly


The bolt, extractor, and firing pin are steel. The firing pin is inside the bolt and held away from the breach by a steel spring inside the front of the bolt.
The bolt is held within the receiver by the arm of the slide that fits into the top of the bolt. As long as the slide is in place the bolt will remain within
the receiver. When the slide is removed, the bolt will slide forward and up and out of the receiver for cleaning, without having to remove the trigger housing assembly.


Sights


The front sight is plastic and held in place by a steel set screw that engages a hole threaded into the top of the barrel.
The prototype had included the openings in the uprights on either side of the sight blade. The effectiveness of the holes can
be debated but for the purposes of a replica of the U.S. M1 Carbine their omission detracts from the appearance of authenticity.

The height of the front sight blade significantly lowers the point of impact on the target. To the point the rear sight will need to be set for 250 yards (+/-) to achieve accurate sighting at 25 yards.
While this can be corrected by filing down the top of the front sight blade it would require the removal of approximately 1/8" or more. This would further erode the appearance of authenticity.


The rear sight dovetail has been set well to the rear to allow for mounting scope ring mounts to the lengthwise dovetail without having to remove the rear sight.
Should you choose to mount a scope on your Chiappa/Citadel carbine be sure to obtain a mount with risers that provide at least a 3/8" vertical rise so the scope will clear the handguard.


The rear of the dovetail is a separate piece of aluminum attached to the receiver.


The rear sight and elevation mechanism are plastic. The windage adjustment knob and bolt are steel. The peep
sight was designed to be held within the elevation ramp by a very small steel ball bearing.


Both set screws are steel. Both sights are plastic. The front sight set screw threads through the sight and into a notch in the barrel for a secure fit.
The rear sight set screw holds the rear sight in place by placing pressure between the bottom of the rear sight and top of the receiver. The dovetail prevents
the rear sight from moving to the front and/or rear. The pressure exerted by the set screw is the only thing keeping the rear sight from moving left or right.

  • The location of the set screw positions the entire rear sight off center.
  • The set screw positions the rear sight at a slight angle with the left side of the sight being higher than the right.
  • The only thing holding the plastic rear sight in place is the steel set screw pressing on the aluminum receiver.
  • Should the short set screw be removed it's size makes it easy to lose.
  • Use of a small ball bearing to retain the peephole within the ramp has historically proven inadequate (Iver Johnson and Universal tried this and changed it).

The sights of the Chiappa/Citadel M1-22 not only detract from the appearance of a replica of an M1 Carbine but are also unreliable as sights. Placement of the dovetail so far to the rear of the receiver was not necessary to accommodate a scope mount and/or scope. Many of us prefer metal over plastic for these two parts but fact is many rimfire firearm manufacturers are turning to the use of plastic due to cost and improvements in the durability of polymers. The polymer used for these two sights is durable but the manner in which they are constructed, held in place, and/or positioned on the carbine detracts from their appearance, function, and/or retention.

Some owners are choosing to replace the rear sight with one made of steel or eliminate it completely and use a long scope instead, with the rear scope mount covering the rear sight dovetail.

Should you decide to replace the plastic rear sight with an authentic or aftermarket M1 Carbine rear sight, there a few things you should know beforehand.

  • M1 Carbine rear sights are steel, the M1-22 receiver and dovetail are aluminum. Be careful not to damage the M1-22.
  • The dovetail of the M1-22 is slightly smaller than the bottom of the M1 Carbine rear sights. Do not force the sight into the dovetail. File a small amount of metal off
    of the front and/or rear of the bottom of the M1 Carbine rear sight until it fits the dovetail snugly.
  • M1 Carbine rear sights were designed to be staked in place to prevent lateral movement. If the sight to dovetail fit is snug this shouldn't be necessary for the M1-22.



Red dot scope mounted using a cantilever mount. The scope clears the rear sight peephole when the peephole is placed in the
forward position. Note the space this provides for moving the dovetail forward into a position more consistent with that of an M1 Carbine.
Most cantilever mounts are designed for AR rifles with a Picatinny rail. Look for one that has a 3/8" vertical rise, offset 1" ring mount,
and held in place by set screws as opposed to a bolt and nut. The position of this scope does not interfere with case ejection.


Stock Group


One of the most attractive parts of the Chiappa M1-22 are the wood stock and wood handguard. Chiappa's manual indicates their stocks and handguards are
interchangeable with their GI counterparts. This is true of the wood stock and handguard but the polymer stock fit is slightly off at the recoil plate.
The polymer handguard will not fit an M1 Carbine.


The barrel band and attached sling holder are plastic. The barrel band screw and the hex nut that secures it are metal. Inevitably some owners will replace
the plastic barrel band with it's M1 Carbine equivalent. They will discover the diameter of the barrel is smaller than the diameter of an M1 Carbine barrel
and it will be necessary to shim any bayonet lug to hold it securely in place. While plastic may not be as appealing to some people, on the M1-22 it is functional.


Chiappa M1-22 Stock

GI M1 Carbine Stock
Points A, B, C, & D appear almost the same from the left side of the stock

 


Chiappa M1-22 Stock

GI M1 Carbine Stock
The width of the slinghole in the right side of the stock is the same as the GI stocks. However,
the angle and width of the wood at the front of the slinghole is wider in the Chiappa/Citadel M1-22
stock (letter C) as the angle and depth of the cuts A and B are shallower than their GI equivalents.
Because of this the Chiappa/Citadel M1-22 will not accommodate an M1 Carbine oiler and sling.
Variations in sling thickness are not the cause of this issue.


The recoil plate is aluminum. Left in the stock it allows the stock to be interchangeable with an M1 or M2 Carbine stock.
The escutcheon nut and recoil plate screw are metal and threaded using the metric system. The head of the recoil plate
screw is wider than it's M1 Carbine equivalent and will not fit an M1 Carbine recoil plate. An M1 Carbine recoil plate screw
will not hold the Chiappa recoil plate or fit the escutcheon nut. So while the stock and handguard
are interchangeable with their carbine counterparts, these parts are not.


The Chiappa buttplate does a better job of replicating an M1 Carbine buttplate than the majority of commercial carbines have.
Should someone attempt to replace it with an M1 Carbine buttplate they may discover the rear of the Chiappa stock (metric) is
slightly larger than it's GI counterpart. Some M1 Carbine buttplates will replace it, some will not. The Chiappa buttplate screw
depicted in their manual has a standard head consistent with it's GI counterpart. Many American
enthusiasts of the U.S. M1 Carbines consider a simple Phillips head screw, although functional, a blemish needing corrective action.


Polymer Stock & Handguard


Unlike the wood stock, the polymer stock will accommodate an M1 Carbine sling and oiler. This stock is far superior to the polymer stock manufactured by Ramline and much lighter than the stock manufactured by Choate.



Chiappa polymer handguard replaced with an aftermarket ventilated metal handguard.


Trigger Housing Group

Words of Caution. It is strongly recommended you do not attempt to replace ANY of the trigger housing parts with their M1 Carbine equivalents.
Those who do it will discover modifications that will need to be made to get them to fit. They will then discover that one modification may require yet
another be made. The situation may snowball on them until what they're left with is a safety hazard or non-functional.

These parts look like M1 Carbine parts, but they are not. They are replicas manufactured using the metric system.

Trigger housing is 100% plastic


Note the magazine catch and magazine catch spring. During range time the spring has a tendency to work it's way out.
Should the magazine catch spring pop out, as occurred during firing of this particular M1-22, the magazine catch may dislodge sufficiently to allow the
small pieces that serve the purpose of a safety spring and plunger to pop out. Given their size the spring and ball bearing may be hard to locate.

The hammer, hammer spring guide, sear, springs, and pins are steel. The trigger is aluminum. The magazine catch and safety are plastic.

It is recommended that the trigger housing not be routinely removed from the receiver for cleaning. It's not necessary and the bolt can be
removed/reinstalled through the top of the receiver after the slide has been removed. The trigger housing pin is a steel roll pin and repeated
removal and installation may eventually damage the forward lug on the receiver.

It is also recommended the parts within the trigger housing group not be routinely removed from the trigger housing.


Magazine

The magazine and follower are plastic. The opening in the right side of the magazine allows viewing of the number of cartridges in the magazine.


The magazine is disassembled by depressing the pin inside the notch in the bottom of the magazine
and sliding the baseplate out the opening on the rear of the magazine.


Seating the Magazine inside the Carbine

With the slide locked back utilizing the slide pin and receiver detent notch the magazine easily slides into place and locks. Pulling back and releasing the slide handle chambers the next cartridge.


When the last cartridge is fired the magazine blocks the bolt from moving forward but this does not cause the slide pin to engage
the receiver detent notch. When the magazine is removed to insert another the bolt is released and moves forward to the closed position.

With the bolt in the closed position an unloaded magazine easily slides into the trigger housing and locks in place, but a loaded magazine normally has to be forced (slapped on the bottom) to get it to lock in place.

The original 15 round magazines for the U.S. M1 Carbine did not lock the bolt back by engaging the slide notch. When the 30 round magazines were introduced they included a different follower that caused the slide to stop at the point the slide pin would engage the slide notch. Some of the aftermarket magazines for the M1 Carbine include the later follower. Normally the M1 Carbine magazines seat without having to force the magazine upwards into the trigger housing.

Manual Proof Mark Discrepancies


Chiappa/Citadel M1-22 Manual
(Page 3)

The Citadel Model M1-22's being sold in the USA do not have the proof marks of the National Proof House of Gardone Val Trompia in Brescia, Italy. Only the Chiappa firearms assembled in Italy are required or accepted for testing by the Italian proof house.

The M1-22 carbines being sold in the U.S.A. are manufactured in Italy but assembled in the U.S.A. This isn't unusual but to indicate they are safety checked by the Italian proof house when they are not, and to use it to infer a higher level of safety in a manual mostly devoted to limiting liability, is something that should be corrected. Note the manual for Europe is a different manual, separate from the manual used in the U.S.A.

Warranty Service

The Chiappa facility in Dayton, Ohio does not accept walk-in service.

The Chiappa website does not list a USA telephone number for obtaining warranty service. Service is obtained by filling out an online customer service form (click on this link) and submitting it through their website. Legacy Sports does not offer warranty service for the Citadel M-1 .22 Carbine. The Legacy Sports website refers customers to the Chiappa website for service requests.

The Chiappa M1-22 Manual provides the following customer service number: (937) 835-5000