Post WWII Commercially Manufactured M1 Carbines


Chiappa Firearms
Azzano Mella,

Registered Trademark of Armi Sport, Azzano Mella, Italy

Chiappa Firearms

Chiappa Firearms is a family owned and operated manufacturer of firearms located in Azzano Mella, Brescia, Italy. Founded in 1958 with the production of a single action revolver, the company has expanded to The Chiappa Group of companies, including:

  • Armi Sport (replica firearms, target shooting firearms, firearms for defense)
  • Kimar (blank, signal and small caliber firearms)
  • ACP (laser training system)
  • Costa Giampietro (metal surface treatment)
  • Chiappa Firearms Ltd (replica firearms, target shooting firearms, firearms for defense)

In Europe the firearms are sold under the name of the company within The Chiappa Group that manufactured them. Historically and currently, in the United States their firearms have often been imported and sold wholesale by American companies whose marketing targeted(s) the buyers of the type of replica the family made as opposed to one or more importers handling the entire line of firearms. An example would be their replica 19th Century American handguns and rifles sold by Taylor & Company of Winchester, VA, a company that specializes in western action firearms of the 19th century. The result has been many of the firearms manufactured by Armi Sport/Chiappa being sold under the names of various marketing wholesalers as opposed to the Chiappa name. The first couple years after it was introduced the Chiappa Model M1-22 was marketed as the Citadel M1-22 by the distributors holding the Citadel trademark, Legacy Sports. These M1-22's are marked on the right side of the receiver below the rear sight with the model indicated as "Citadel M1-22". The right side of the receiver indicates made or imported by Chiappa.

According to the Chiappa Firearms website, "January 1, 2007 Chiappa Firearms began re-structuring their distribution program for North America. Factory representation was based in the United States allowing direct communication for our customers. In addition to the direct North American representation, development of a service support center conveniently located in the United States providing warranty service, repairs, as well as Custom Shop service. In 2009, Chiappa Firearms, Ltd., located in Dayton, Ohio expanded the North American operation moving to a new facility and expanded operations to include manufacturing products specifically for the US Market."

According to the Ohio Secretary of State, Chiappa Firearms was incorporated in the State of Ohio in November 2006, followed by Chiappa Holdings in March 2009. In May 2010 they applied for a trademark for the name of Chiappa Firearms which was issued in August 2011.

In July 2009 Chiappa purchased several acres at 6785 W. Third St. in Dayton, Ohio, on which they constructed a building with 1959 sq ft of office space and a 5056 sq ft warehouse. This facility served as their first North American branch and warranty center.

On December 31, 2015 Chiappa purchased the warehouse located at 1415 Stanley Ave., Dayton, OH 45404. On March 21, 2014 Chiappa sold the facility on Third St. to Ares Capitol, LLC, doing business as Inland Manufacturing. As of 2015 Chiappa's USA headquarters and warranty station is located at the Stanley Ave. warehouse.

Replica's of the U.S. Carbine, Caliber .30 Model M1

Chiappa has introduced and manufactures two replicas of the U.S. Carbines manufactured during WWII. Each replica is offered with a choice of stocks and accessories. The Model M1-22 is detailed on this page while the Model M1-9 has it's own page that may be accessed by the link below.

Model M1-22

Caliber: .22 long rifle rimfireIntroduced: November 2011

Detailed on this page, below

Model M1-9

Caliber: 9mm ParabellumIntroduced: January 2014

Click HERE

The Model M1-22 Prototype

At the 2011 NRA Convention in Pittsburgh, PA, the Chiappa booth included a prototype of the Model M1-22 to be. The company was still working on design changes at the time.


The Model M1-22

The different models of the M1-22 manufactured by Chiappa are simply the same rifle with the only differences being where it is being marketed and the option of a wood stock or synthetic stock.

Citadel Model M-1 .22 Carbine (USA)
Ref. #CaliberStockGroovesTwist RateBarrel LengthOverall LengthWeightMagazine Capacity
CIR22M1W.22 long riflewood6*1 in 1618"35"4 lbs, 8 oz10
CIR22M1S.22 long riflesynthetic (black)6*1 in 1618"35"4 lbs, 8 oz10
Chiappa Firearms Model M1-22 Carbine (Europe)
Ref. #CaliberStockGroovesTwist RateBarrel LengthOverall LengthWeightMagazine Capacity
500-082.22 long riflewood61 in 1618"35"4 lbs, 8 oz10
500-083.22 long riflesynthetic (black)61 in 1618"35"4 lbs, 8 oz10
*10 grooves on some carbines being sold
The information above was obtained from the manual. Company websites conflict with one another and the manual.
Weight obtained by weighing the M1-22, without magazine.

As a replica of the U.S. Carbine Caliber 30 M1 the designer of this .22 rimfire did, with a few exceptions noted below, a good job of replicating the parts of an M1 Carbine. The design is so close owners may be tempted to interchange parts of the M1-22 with their counterparts made for the M1 Carbine. Various marketing claims over time have claimed the parts of the M1-22 are interchangeable with their GI counterparts. This claim is not completely accurate. Most parts and/or groups of parts that can be replaced with their GI counterparts may not work properly and cause the carbine to malfunction.

If you decide to replace any of the parts on this replica carbine with parts made for an M1 Carbine there are a few things you should know beforehand.


Details on various parts listed below under each parts group

Note the two screws forward of the forward trigger housing lug for securing the barrel.

Note the open design of the hole for the recoil spring.

Slide and bolt in the open position.

Slide and bolt in the closed position.


Manufactured from aluminum. Note the dismount notch for the slide.

Sometime during 2012 Chiappa changed their receiver markings. Note the Made in Italy by Kimar.

The 11 at the beginning of the serial number sequence indicates the carbine was manufactured in 2011.

The marking change in 2012 eliminating the circled K at the front of serial number. This carbine was manufactured in
2012 and inspected by the proof house in 2013. The Citadel name on these receivers was trademarked by Legacy Sports,
Chiappa's initial U.S.A. distributor. Legacy Sports dropped the Chiappa line from their website between December
2014 and February 2015. The Chiappa website no longer indicates Legacy Sports as one of their distributors.

The slide has a slide stop for holding the slide and bolt open.

Initially Chiappa claimed their M1-22's were tested at a proof house in Italy but the carbines were
shipped to the U.S.A. as parts and assembled at the Chiappa facility in Dayton, OH (see receiver above).
Eventually the proof marks began appearing on top of the receiver forward of the bolt, bolt and barrel.

The proof testing marks of the National Proof House of Gardone Val Trompia, Brescia, Italy are located
on top of the receiver forward of the bolt, on top of the bolt and on top of the barrel near the front sight.
Left to right: 1) Italian date code CL = 2013 ; 2) symbol of the armory Gardone Val Trompia, Brescia, Italy;
3) symbol indicating the test was conducted using smokeless gun powder


6 lands & grooves

10 lands & grooves
Discoloration present at time of purchase

Initially the M1-22 barrels did not include proof marks as the parts were shipped to the U.S.A. and assembled at the Chiappa facility in Dayton.
Eventually Chiappa began submitting the M1-22's to the Italian National Proof House for inspection. Inspectors placed one set of proof marks on
top of the barrel near the front sight.

Top: symbol of the armory Gardone Val Trompia, Brescia, Italy;
Bottom: symbol indicating the test was conducted using smokeless gun powder

The barrel is manufactured from steel and sits in an aluminum sleeve which is attached to the front of the receiver.
The barrel is pinned in place by two screws inserted through the bottom of the receiver.


Slide is manufactured from aluminum. Recoil spring and guide rod are steel.

Slide dismount notch in receiver

Slide stop pin and detent in receiver. The manner in which the arm on the
rear of the slide engages the bolt is similar to the design of the Erma Werke Model EM1 .22.

The Chiappa design of the front of the slide is a definite improvement over the design of the Erma EM1. The front of the slide
engages guides on either side of the barrel, the rear of the slide engages a guide in the right side of the receiver, similar
to the M1 Carbine design but modified for the .22 rimfire blowback design instead of the short stroke gas piston of the .30 caliber carbine.

The M1 Carbine recoil spring and guide is shown on the bottom for comparison to the Chiappa M1-22 recoil spring and guide above it. The receiver's open
recoil spring hole design requires the recoil spring guide to be longer than it's M1 Carbine counterpart. The Chiappa recoil spring guide is 17mm in length
(approx. 6 3/4"). It's M1 Carbine counterpart is approximately 4 15/16" long (approx. 12.5mm).

Due to the length of the guide rod the recoil spring and guide rod are removed and replaced in conjunction with the slide as it is dismounted
and replaced. Attempting to remove the recoil spring and guide rod before removing the slide or after replacing the slide will damage the recoil spring
guide and scratch the finish on the slide/receiver.

Bolt Assembly

The bolt, extractor, and firing pin are steel. The firing pin is inside the bolt and held away from the breach by a steel
spring inside the front of the bolt. The bolt is held within the receiver by the arm of the slide that fits into the top
of the bolt. As long as the slide is in place the bolt will remain within the receiver. When the slide is removed, the bolt
will slide forward and up and out of the receiver for cleaning, without having to remove the trigger housing assembly.


The front sight is plastic and held in place by a steel set screw that engages a hole threaded
into the top of the barrel. The prototype had included the openings in the uprights on either side
of the sight blade. The effectiveness of the holes can be debated but for the purposes of a replica
of the U.S. M1 Carbine their omission detracts from the appearance of authenticity.

The height of the front sight blade significantly lowers the point of impact on the target. To the point
the rear sight will need to be set for 250 yards (+/-) to achieve accurate sighting at 25 yards.
While this can be corrected by filing down the top of the front sight blade it would require the
removal of approximately 1/8" or more. This would further erode the appearance of authenticity.

The rear sight dovetail has been set well to the rear to allow for mounting scope ring mounts to the
lengthwise dovetail without having to remove the rear sight. Should you choose to mount a scope on your
Chiappa carbine be sure to obtain a mount with risers that provide at least a 3/8" vertical rise so the
scope will clear the handguard.

The rear of the dovetail is a separate piece of aluminum attached to the receiver.

The rear sight and elevation mechanism are plastic. The windage adjustment knob and bolt are steel. The
peep sight was designed to be held within the elevation ramp by a very small steel ball bearing.

Both set screws are steel. Both sights are plastic. The front sight set screw threads through the sight and into a notch
in the barrel for a secure fit. The rear sight set screw holds the rear sight in place by placing pressure between the
bottom of the rear sight and top of the receiver. The dovetail prevents the rear sight from moving to the front and/or
rear. The pressure exerted by the set screw is the only thing keeping the rear sight from moving left or right.

  • The location of the set screw positions the entire rear sight off center.
  • The set screw positions the rear sight at a slight angle with the left side of the sight being higher than the right.
  • The only thing holding the plastic rear sight in place is the steel set screw pressing on the aluminum receiver.
  • Should the short set screw be removed it's size makes it easy to lose.
  • Use of a small ball bearing to retain the peephole within the ramp has historically proven inadequate.

The sights of the Chiappa/Citadel M1-22 not only detract from the appearance of a replica of an M1 Carbine but are also unreliable as sights. Placement of the dovetail so far to the rear of the receiver was not necessary to accommodate a scope mount and/or scope. Many of us prefer metal over plastic for these two parts but fact is many rimfire firearm manufacturers are turning to the use of plastic due to cost and improvements in the durability of polymers. The polymer used for these two sights is durable but the manner in which they are constructed, held in place, and/or positioned on the carbine detracts from their appearance, function, and/or retention.

Some owners are choosing to replace the rear sight with one made of steel or eliminate it completely and use a long scope instead, with the rear scope mount covering the rear sight dovetail.

Should you decide to replace the plastic rear sight with an authentic or aftermarket M1 Carbine rear sight, there a few things you should know beforehand.

  • M1 Carbine rear sights are steel, the M1-22 receiver and dovetail are aluminum. Be careful not to damage the M1-22.
  • The dovetail of the M1-22 is slightly smaller than the bottom of the M1 Carbine rear sights. Do not force the sight into the dovetail. File a small amount of metal off
    of the front and/or rear of the bottom of the M1 Carbine rear sight until it fits the dovetail snugly.
  • M1 Carbine rear sights were designed to be staked in place to prevent lateral movement. If the sight to dovetail fit is snug this shouldn't be necessary for the M1-22.

Red dot scope mounted using a cantilever mount. The scope clears the rear sight peephole when the peephole is placed in the
forward position. Note the space this provides for moving the dovetail forward into a position more consistent with that of an M1 Carbine.
Most cantilever mounts are designed for AR rifles with a Pica tinny rail. Look for one that has a 3/8" vertical rise, offset 1" ring mount,
and held in place by set screws as opposed to a bolt and nut. The position of this scope does not interfere with case ejection.

Stock Group

One of the most attractive parts of the Chiappa M1-22 are the wood stock and wood handguard. The type of wood initially used was changed
to Northern European beech wood, treated with a walnut stain. Though not as attractive to the original stocks, Northern European beech
is a hardwood that has seen widespread use with Western European military rifle stocks.

Chiappa's manual indicates their stocks and handguards are interchangeable with their GI counterparts. The wood stock and handguard are
interchangeable with their M1 Carbine counterparts if the metal parts are replaced also. The polymer stock and handguard are not compatible
with M1 Carbine stocks.

The barrel band and attached sling holder are plastic. The barrel band screw and the hex nut that secures it are metal. Inevitably
some owners will replace the plastic barrel band with it's M1 Carbine equivalent. They will discover the diameter of the barrel is
smaller than the diameter of an M1 Carbine barrel and it will be necessary to shim any bayonet lug to hold it securely in place.
While plastic may not be as appealing to some people, on the M1-22 it is functional.

Chiappa M1-22 Stock

GI M1 Carbine Stock
Points A, B, C, & D appear almost the same from the left side of the stock


Chiappa M1-22 Stock

GI M1 Carbine Stock
The width of the sling hole in the right side of the stock is the same as the GI stocks. However,
the angle and width of the wood at the front of the sling hole is wider in the Chiappa/Citadel M1-22
stock (letter C) as the angle and depth of the cuts A and B are shallower than their GI equivalents.
Because of this the Chiappa/Citadel M1-22 will not accommodate an M1 Carbine oiler and sling.
Variations in sling thickness are not the cause of this issue.

The recoil plate is aluminum. Left in the stock it allows the stock to be interchangeable with an M1 or M2 Carbine stock.
The escutcheon nut and recoil plate screw are metal and threaded using the metric system. The head of the recoil plate
screw is wider than it's M1 Carbine equivalent and will not fit an M1 Carbine recoil plate. An M1 Carbine recoil plate screw
will not hold the Chiappa recoil plate or fit the escutcheon nut. So while the stock and handguard are interchangeable with
their carbine counterparts, these parts are not.

The Chiappa buttplate does a better job of replicating an M1 Carbine buttplate than the majority of commercial carbines have.
Should someone attempt to replace it with an M1 Carbine buttplate they may discover the rear of the Chiappa stock (metric) is
slightly larger than it's GI counterpart. Some M1 Carbine buttplates will replace it, some will not. The Chiappa buttplate screw
depicted in their manual has a standard head consistent with it's GI counterpart. Many American enthusiasts of the U.S. M1 Carbines
consider a simple Phillips head screw, although functional, a blemish needing corrective action.

Polymer Stock & Handguard

Unlike the wood stock, the polymer stock will accommodate an M1 Carbine sling and oiler. This stock is far superior to the polymer stock manufactured by Ramline and much lighter than the stock manufactured by Choate.

Chiappa polymer handguard replaced with an aftermarket ventilated metal handguard.

Trigger Housing Group

Words of Caution. It is strongly recommended you do not attempt to replace ANY of the trigger housing parts with their M1 Carbine equivalents.
Those who do it will discover modifications that will need to be made to get them to fit. They will then discover that one modification may require yet
another be made. The situation may snowball on them until what they're left with is a safety hazard or non-functional.

These parts look like M1 Carbine parts, but they are not. They are replicas manufactured using the metric system.

Trigger housing is 100% plastic

Note the magazine catch and magazine catch spring. During range time the spring has a tendency to work it's way out.
Should the magazine catch spring pop out, as occurred during firing of this particular M1-22, the magazine catch may dislodge sufficiently to allow the
small pieces that serve the purpose of a safety spring and plunger to pop out. Given their size the spring and ball bearing may be hard to locate.

The hammer, hammer spring guide, sear, springs, and pins are steel. The trigger is aluminum. The magazine catch and safety are plastic.

It is recommended that the trigger housing not be routinely removed from the receiver for cleaning. It's not necessary and the bolt can be
removed/reinstalled through the top of the receiver after the slide has been removed. The trigger housing pin is a steel roll pin and repeated
removal and installation may eventually damage the forward lug on the receiver.

It is also recommended the parts within the trigger housing group not be routinely removed from the trigger housing.


The magazine and follower are plastic. The opening in the right side of the magazine allows viewing of the number of cartridges in the magazine.

The magazine is disassembled by depressing the pin inside the notch in the bottom of the magazine
and sliding the baseplate out the opening on the rear of the magazine.

Seating the Magazine inside the Carbine

With the slide locked back utilizing the slide pin and receiver detent notch the magazine easily slides into place and locks. Pulling back and releasing the slide handle chambers the next cartridge.

When the last cartridge is fired the magazine blocks the bolt from moving forward but this does not cause the slide pin to engage
the receiver detent notch. When the magazine is removed to insert another the bolt is released and moves forward to the closed position.

With the bolt in the closed position an unloaded magazine easily slides into the trigger housing and locks in place, but a loaded magazine normally has to be forced (slapped on the bottom) to get it to lock in place.

The original 15 round magazines for the U.S. M1 Carbine did not lock the bolt back by engaging the slide notch. When the 30 round magazines were introduced they included a different follower that caused the slide to stop at the point the slide pin would engage the slide notch. Some of the aftermarket magazines for the M1 Carbine include the later follower. Normally the M1 Carbine magazines seat without having to force the magazine upwards into the trigger housing.