Inland Manufacturing

Post WWII Commercially Manufactured M1 Carbines


Inland Manufacturing
Dayton, OH

Registered Trademark of
Chiappa Firearms, Dayton, OH


The Original Inland Manufacturing

The Inland Manufacturing Division
General Motors

The Inland Manufacturing Division of General Motors was organized in 1922 for the manufacturing of wood-wrapped steering wheels. Their location in Dayton, OH included the buildings of the then defunct Dayton Wright Airplane Company with the shape of one of the buildings becoming part of the Inland logo.

The original
Inland Manufacturing Division,
General Motors Corporation

In November 1941 Inland became the second of what would eventually become ten companies contracted by U.S. Army Ordnance to produce the U.S. Caliber .30 Carbine. Inland was instrumental in the early years before mass production in perfecting the Winchester design. Inland was the first of these companies to start mass production and one of only two who continued until the end of carbine production in August 1945. Inland manufactured over 2,630,000 carbines, more than three times any of the other manufacturers. They were the only company to manufacture the folding stock Model M1A1 Carbine and one of only two companies to manufacture the select-fire Model M2 Carbine.

After WWII Inland returned to manufacturing automotive parts for GM. The Inland Manufacturing Division of General Motors was eventually merged with other companies and finally passed into history in 1999. The buildings that had housed Inland were demolished between March and June 2014. The Wright Airplane Company hangars were spared due to their historical significance.

The carbines manufactured by the Inland Division of General Motors during WWII were, and still are, the most commonly encountered U.S. Carbines manufactured under contract to U.S. Army Ordnance.

Receiver manufactured by the
of General Motors during WWII

Barrel manufactured by the
in November 1943

The Modern Day Inland Manufacturing


Receiver manufactured by
2015 and later

Barrel manufactured by
2015 and later

On June 19, 2012 two trademark applications were filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office by Douglas Brannon, a corporate attorney. One application was for the logo and its design by Chiappa Firearms LLC at 6785 West Third Street in Dayton, Ohio (granted June 30, 2015 - Registration #4764882). The second was for the name "INLAND MANUFACTURING" by Ronald Norton at 6785 West Third Street in Dayton, Ohio (granted September 20, 2016 - Registration #5045779). Both indicate the date of first use in commerce as October 14, 2014.

The property at 6785 West Third Street in Dayton, Ohio was purchased by Chiappa Firearms in July 2009. Chiappa constructed a building on this property with 1959 sq. ft. of office space and a 5056 sq. ft. warehouse that served as the U.S. headquarters for Chiappa Firearms. Ron Norton served as the president of Chiappa USA at this location. Chiappa's replicas of the M1 Carbine in .22 long rifle and 9mm were initially shipped to wholesalers and retailers from this location.

Ohio corporate records indicate Inland Manufacturing became an Ohio Limited Liability Company on September 3, 2013. Attorney Douglas Brannon is indicated as the registered agent. The same day Ares Capitol LLC was incorporated with Brannon as their registered agent.

On March 21, 2014 Chiappa Firearms sold the property and buildings at 6785 West Third Street in Dayton to Ares Capitol, LLC. Chiappa relocated their USA HQ to a warehouse they had purchased in December 2013 at 1415 Stanley Ave., Dayton, OH. Since this date Inland Manufacturing with Ron Norton as their president has been operating from the Third St. location. Norton has indicated he left Chiappa Firearms in 2013 to serve as president of Inland Manufacturing.

Inland's website domain name was obtained in May 2014. Inland offers replacement parts from a second website, The sole distributor for the items offered by Inland Manufacturing is MKS Supply located at 8611-A North Dixie Drive in Dayton, Ohio 45414. The Inland Manufacturing website indicates MKS Supply as the point of contact for all questions. All retail firearm sales are conducted through Inland's distribution network.

Inland Manufacturing .30 Caliber Carbines

Inland Manufacturing initially offered three carbine models along with several 1911 style handguns. Retailers began offering Inland's carbines during the Spring of 2015. Since then Inland has been adding additional carbine models that are variations of their basic M1 carbines. All are built using the same receivers and parts. The differences are barrel length, type of stock or finish, type of handguard and a few accessories such as their flash suppressor. Inland indicates their carbines are 100% manufactured in the USA.

Inland Manufacturing
M1 1944ILM130.30 Carbinewalnut418"35.75"5 lbs, 3 oz10Push Button Safety
No Bayonet Lug
M1 1945ILM140.30 Carbinewalnut418"35.75"5 lbs, 3 oz15Rotary Safety
Bayonet Lug
M1A1 ParatrooperILM150.30 Carbinewalnut forestock
metal folding
418"25.75" Folded
35.75" Extended
5 lbs, 3 oz15Rotary Safety
Bayonet Lug
Announced new for 2016
M1 ScoutILM160.30 Carbinehardwood
(painted black)
416.25"34"5 lbs, 3 oz15Push Button Safety
No Bayonet Lug
Flash Suppressor
Tactical Handguard
M1 Jungle CarbineILM170.30 Carbinewalnut416.25"34"5 lbs, 3 oz15Push Button Safety
No Bayonet Lug
Flash Suppressor
M1 AdvisorILM180.30 Carbinewalnut412"19.75"4 lbs, 5 oz15Push Button Safety
No Bayonet Lug
Flash Suppressor
Announced new for 2017
T30 CarbineILM320.30 Carbinewalnut418"35.75"6 lbs15Push Button Safety
Bayonet Lug
Flash Suppressor
Scope Mount
2.5X Hi-Lux M82 Style Scope

A number of firearm related publications have authored information and/or videos on the carbines offered by Inland Manufacturing. Perhaps the most notable being a series of articles that have appeared in "The American Rifleman" magazine and a video produced by Guns & Ammo magazine. The media attention has garnered a lot of interest in the carbines made by Inland Manufacturing. The main focus of the media has been the .30 caliber carbines manufactured during WWII with an introduction to the carbines currently being manufactured by Inland Manufacturing. These have not included a detailed examination and testing of the carbines.

The M1 Carbine
Manufactured by
the modern day
Inland Manufacturing

Auto-Ordnance has been manufacturing commercial M1 carbine replicas since 2005. The receiver and majority of parts used by Inland Manufacturing are manufactured by the companies who have been making and continue to make the same receiver and parts for Auto-Ordnance carbines. The part numbers used by Inland Manufacturing are the same as Auto-Ordnance. Both use the same manual with the name and information for their particular company.

In choosing to use the same sources as Auto-Ordnance Inland inherited some of the problems Auto-Ordnance has been experiencing. This is where the carbines produced by these two companies begin to differ in that Inland has taken extra steps to correct some of these problems and deficiencies. While at the same time they have created a few problems specific to their own.

The carbines manufactured by both Auto-Ordnance and Inland Manufacturing are replicas of the carbines manufactured for the U.S. Army Ordnance during WWII. Some of the parts are interchangeable with their GI counterparts, some are not. The parts made for and used by Inland and Auto-Ordnance are interchangeable with one another providing more than one source for replacement parts.

Break-in Period

Inland Mfg and Auto-Ordnance carbines purchased new typically have a break-in period of about 250-300 rounds. One of the issues common during this break-in period is occasional failure of the bolt to move fully forward, rotate and lock into the receiver causing a failure to fire. Occasionally during firing the bolt sometimes fails to travel far enough to the rear to cock the hammer. When the trigger is pulled the hammer is in the forward position and unable to strike the firing pin.

During this time the finish along the top of the bolt may wear quickly and/or become scratched. This is caused by a failure to properly finish machine the inside of the receiver to remove any metal left from the casting and insure the path of the bolt is straight and smooth. Failure to properly machine the slide's cam cut can also impede the movement of the bolt (see below). Failure to properly finish machine the surfaces on the right side of the receiver creates additional friction impeding the slide and bolt in addition to removing the finish where the slide and receiver come in contact with one another.

The problems usually tend to lessen the more the carbine is fired. The repeated movement of the parts eventually wear down the areas of resistance.

The Stock Group

The stocks and handguards used by Inland are manufactured by the Altamont Company in Thomasboro, IL.

Inland replicates the crossed cannons cartouche used by U.S. Army
Ordnance inspectors at the Inland Division of GM during WWII

Stocks feature a long barrel channel and are absent the wood crosspiece support forward of the
trigger housing, replicating the design of an M2 stock. The cut of the wood under the recoil plate
and absence of a selector switch cutout replicate the design of an M1 stock.

Stocks manufactured by S.E. Overton for the Inland Division of GM were identified by placing the letters IO in the slingwell. Inland replicates these markings. The stocks manufactured by Altamont have not included the proper slingwell cut to allow the use of an oiler and sling. For the first couple years Inland corrected this by cutting a quarter moon shape in the slingwell (arrow) to enable use with their included sling and oiler. This has been corrected with their later stocks.

The 1945 model includes the bayonet lug with barrel band. The bayonet lug is
absent on the 1944 Model to comply with states having laws banning bayonet lugs.

Stocks and handguards manufactured by Altamont for the M1 carbines are approximately 1/4" shorter than their
GI counterparts and the majority of all other commercially manufactured M1 carbine stocks. If replacing only
the stock or handguard this requires the replacement to be specifically for an Inland Mfg or Auto-Ordnance
carbine. Using stocks and handguard with other than these requires replacing both the stock and handguard
for the barrel band to fit properly.

Note the barrel band spring fails to engage the notch in the barrel band for
holding the barrel band in place.

Buttplates and their pattern used by Inland Manufacturing
match those used by Auto-Ordnance.

The Receiver Group

The receivers used by Inland Manufacturing are cast by Lamothermic Corporation in Brewster, NY.
The same mold is used to cast receivers for Auto-Ordnance. Lamothermic was also used to cast the
receivers used with the late production carbines by Israel Arms International in Houston, TX.

Hardness tests of the receivers have indicated they are hardened to within GI specifications (Rc 38-45).

A removable plate inside the mold is used to cast the U.S. Carbine Cal .30 M1 markings.
The plate can be swapped out with a different plate to change the markings.

To separate the receivers made for Inland Mfg from those made for Auto-Ordnance Lamothermic
engraves the name of the company along with the serial number on the bottom of the receiver.
The only difference between the receivers used by the two companies are the markings cast
in the receiver.

The casting process leaves excess or uneven metal in various locations on the receiver.
Machining the ridges, uneven areas and finish machining to final specifications is left
to the resources and discretion of the manufacturer.

As can be seen in these series of photographs the degree to which this machining has been
done either by and/or for Inland Mfg has varied but has not been consistently smooth. The
inconsistent machining and/or lack of finish machining has been fairly consistent. The end
result being varying degrees of wear and/or damage to the parkerized finish and metal on various
parts that come in contact with each other. To include the right side of the receiver where
the slide travels back and forth and the top of the bolt as it moves back and forth inside
the receiver (see below).

Note the uneven surfaces along the right side of the receiver.

Also inconsistent has been the amount of force necessary to remove and replace the pin securing
the trigger housing to the front of the receiver often requiring the use of a punch and hammer.
Note the top of the rear wall of the magazine well is resting against the receiver.

Force repeatedly applied to either side of the front receiver lug the housing pins too has the potential of eventually cracking the lug where it attaches to the receiver. If the pin is tight be sure to support the side of the lug opposite the side where the force is being applied.

The receivers cast by Lamothermic for both Inland and Auto-Ordnance have shown varying degrees of warping along
the bottom of the receivers that has been absent any machining. Forcing the front of the trigger housing
upward to insert or remove the trigger housing pin may secure the two together but the greater the difference
in alignment the greater the likelihood of altering the fit and/or performance of other parts that rely on proper
alignment. One example is the angle at which the magazine sits as the bolt passes over it to chamber a cartridge.

Experience examining and using various receivers used by both Inland Mfg and Auto-Ordnance has confirmed the degree of warping is not consistent and easily overlooked. The best indication as to the degree of warping has been the amount of force required to remove and insert the trigger housing pin.

Use of an alignment mark to begin alignment of the barrel to the receiver.

Barrels used on the original WWII carbines have an extension on the chamber end of the barrel referred to
as a barrel skirt. The purpose of the skirt is to guide bolt into alignment with the chamber face. The
receiver mold used by Lamothermic has been designed to include a substitute for this purpose, thereby
eliminating the need for the barrel skirt.

The Inland name and serial number are added at some point after the casting process.

The milled adjustable rear sight appears to have been manufactured by Kensight, a division of KNS Industries.

The Barrel Group

Barrels used by Inland Manufacturing (and Auto-Ordnance) are manufactured by the Green
Mountain Rifle Barrel Company in Conway, NH. The barrels have 4 lands and grooves.

Inland's front sights are cast. They are secured to the barrel using a key and roll pin.

Inland Manufacturing is the only commercial carbine manufacturer who has added their
name to the barrel in an effort to replicate the original barrel manufacturers of WWII.

Inland adds the markings after the barrel has been finished. The device used to create the
markings creates the smoothed metal circling the barrel around the markings.

Green Mountain Rifle Barrel Company manufactures the barrel using a cast gas piston housing
swaged to the barrel. The wear on the side of the cylinder was caused by the slide.

A word of CAUTION BEFORE FIRING carbines made by Inland Mfg (or Auto-Ordnance):

The .30 caliber carbines use a short stroke gas piston (black arrow) to operate the firearm. When the cartridge is fired gas exits the bore through a small hole into the gas cylinder forcing the piston out of the gas cylinder and into the slide. The force of the piston strike to the slide is sufficient to drive the slide and bolt rearward to facilitate extraction and ejection of the empty casing and cock the hammer.

The piston is held in place by the gas piston nut (white arrow). The nut is threaded and staked to the gas piston housing to prevent it from rotating out of the gas cylinder.

Physically check the gas piston nut to make sure it's tight. The design of these nuts does not include the recessed areas specific for staking and holding the nut in place that was mandatory on carbines made to Ordnance specifications during and after WWII. Historically the stake marks as applied on the gas piston nuts used by the modern day Inland Mfg and those used by Auto-Ordnance have been insufficient to secure the nut in place. Check that the nut is tight before you fire the carbine and periodically thereafter to make sure it stays in place.

Note the mold mark along the top of the barrel between the gas piston housing and receiver.
Also the two silver spots on top of the barrel above the chamber.

The barrels are manufactured by casting an outer piece that extends from the gas piston cylinder rearward. It includes the threads for mounting the barrel to the receiver. The actual barrel with the rifled bore is inserted into this outer piece and sits flush with it's sleeve on the breech end. The barrel is held within the sleeve by what appears to be silver solder.

Variations of this method of barrel manufacture have been used by other earlier commercial carbine manufacturers. Winchester and Inland used a variation of this method when making the barrels for their first carbine prototypes.

The Bolt Group

Inland's bolts and firing pins are machined from forged steel. Their extractors are cast then hard chromed.

Inland has chosen to use round bolts on their carbines. They offer the flat bolt version on their online store
as an optional replacement. The only difference between the two is the flat bolt requires extra machining to
remove part of the rounded top of the bolt to produce a slightly lighter weight bolt. Both designs are equal
in strength when hardened properly.

A Note regarding Compatibility

The bolts made and used by Inland Mfg are interchangeable with those made and used by Auto-Ordnance.

Although almost imperceptible the bolts used by Inland Mfg and Auto-Ordnance are not made to military specifications. Their bolts are slightly longer, the left locking lugs are slightly shorter, the right locking lugs are machined different and the hole for the extractors is slightly smaller. Keep in mind these carbines are replicas of the carbines manufactured for Ordnance during WWII and though not made to military specifications the various parts are made to specifications that enable them to work with one another.

The tolerances used to manufacture these parts are not as stringent as those used by the companies contracted to manufacture carbines and parts for Ordnance during WWII. This sometimes allows interchangeability with their GI counterparts, sometimes not. Be aware that should you decide to replace the bolt on an Inland Mfg carbine with a surplus GI bolt or any bolt other than those made for Inland or Auto-Ordnance you should check the head space of the bolt with the carbine you plan on using it with before you fire the weapon. The difference in bolt length may make the replacement bolt unsafe to use in the Inland Mfg carbine.

Inland initially used cast extractors parkerized to match the finish of the bolt and carbine. The extractors had a tendency to break. For a short time Inland replaced the original extractors with extractors machined from forged steel to military specifications. These were replaced with cast extractors that have been hard chromed as have been used by Auto-Ordnance for years. These are the only two companies who have used hard chromed extractors.

Bolt Hardness - A Brief Overview

The bolt hardness standard set by U.S. Army Ordnance for bolts made under contract to the government was RC38 to RC43 on the Rockwell Hardness C Scale. Approximately 1/2" - 1" of the rear bolt was hardened again, the standard being RC48 to RC54. The second hardening was due to the forces exerted by the face of the hammer impacting the rear of the bolt over time. The design of the rear of the bolt prevents the hammer from striking the firing pin until the bolt has fully rotated and locked.

Commercially manufactured bolts used by all commercial carbine manufacturers have consistently been found to have been hardened only once. They skipped/skip the 2nd hardening of the rear of the bolt. This is not inherently unsafe if the bolt was hardened to C38 to C43. Not hardening the rear of the bolt to the higher degree decreases the lifespan of the rear of the bolt when it is used with a hammer hardened to GI specifications.

This author has recommended occasional visual inspections of the rear of every commercial bolt for deformed metal. More frequently with use over time. Should the metal on the rear of the bolt become damaged the bolt should be replaced.

Commercial Inland Mfg Round Bolts

The bolts shown in the pictures that follow were included with Inland Mfg carbines purchased new. Each carbine/bolt had less than 600 rounds fired at the time the photos were taken. The carbines were purchased over a period of three years.

Rear of right bolt lug

Hardness tests using a calibrated Wilson Rockwell Hardness Tester Model 3JR have shown the bolts were hardened to 32 RC from front to rear including the right bolt lug. The damage appears to have been compounded by the dimensions and shape of the cam cut in the slide that engages the right bolt lug. Their bolts have not been inherently unsafe but the lifespan of the bolt before it needs to be replaced was shortened considerably. Inland is aware of the problem and indicates they have been working to rectify it. Several times they have indicated the issue was resolved only to find it still remained. Inland's customer service has been very good when issues have been brought to their attention.

It is recommended the right bolt lug of the commercial Inland bolts be visually monitored on a regular basis (every couple hundred rounds fired) for deformed metal as shown above. Wear of the finish is normal, damage to the metal is not. If the metal appears to be slightly altered continue to monitor it. A Rockwell hardness test isn't necessary. If the bolt has this issue it will become readily apparent as the damage worsens with every 200-300 rounds.

If and when the issue has been resolved you will know it's not an issue with your carbine by monitoring it and finding no damage to the metal. Also remember to monitor the rear of the bolt over time as with any commercial bolt.

If you eventually decide to replace the bolt the flat bolts made for and used by Auto-Ordnance are one option. They have not experienced these issues and are of the same dimensions as the Inland bolts.

The Slide

The slides used by Inland are also cast by Lamothermic Corporation. Hardness tests have shown
they have been hardened to GI specifications for hardening of the slide (Rc 40-45). The damage
to the front and rear of the right bolt lug noted above can be expected from the interaction of a
properly hardened slide with a bolt hardened below GI specifications.

Note the small distance between the edge of the spring hole and the rear edge of the cam cut.

Note the damage inside the front of the cam cut for the right bolt lug

The slide cam cut is usually absent finish machining. The angles within the cam cut appear to contribute to
failures of the bolt to smoothly move forward and into the locked position. During the firing of the first
200-300 rounds the movement of the bolt becomes smoother as the bolt and cam cut alter one another.

The Trigger Housing Group

The hammer and trigger appear to have been milled from forged steel. Machining can
remove traces of casting mold marks but the number of parts that were cast and not
machined on this carbine infers these two parts were likely made from forged steel.
The trigger housing, sear, safety and mag catch were cast and do not appear to have
been machined.

The plungers on either end of the safety/mag catch spring are not
secured to the spring. Caution should be exercised if removing or installing them.
The spring tension will launch the plunger behind the mag catch with enough force
to cause injury to an eye and/or make it difficult to locate the plunger.

The hole through which the trigger spring is installed has vertical edges from casting that were not machined to complete the
circular opening. They prevent the use of a trigger spring tool to install the trigger spring. They also prevent the trigger spring
from being installed through the rear of the hole in the normal manner.

The spring can be inserted from the rear if oriented upright and pulled over the rear of the trigger with a screwdriver. It can also be
inserted through the front side of the hole.